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Custodiol versus cold Calafiore for elective cardiac arrest in isolated aortic valve replacement: a propensity-matched analysis of 7263 patients†.

Protección miocárdica - Hace 13 horas 37 mins
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Custodiol versus cold Calafiore for elective cardiac arrest in isolated aortic valve replacement: a propensity-matched analysis of 7263 patients†.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017 Mar 03;:

Authors: Hoyer A, Lehmann S, Mende M, Noack T, Kiefer P, Misfeld M, Bakhtiary F, Mohr FW

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the impact of crystalloid cardioplegia (CCP) and blood cardioplegia (BCP) on short- and long-term outcome after isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR).
METHODS: A total of 7263 patients undergoing AVR at our institution between November 1994 and June 2015 were identified. CCP (Custodiol ® ) was used in 83% ( n  = 5998) and intermittent cold BCP in 1007 patients (14%). For 4790 patients, propensity scores were calculated from baseline data, risk factors, comorbidities and characteristics of the disease, resulting in 825 pairs. The primary outcome was operative mortality (OM).
RESULTS: There was no significant difference in OM between CCP and BCP cohorts [33 of 825 (4.0%) vs 35 of 825 (4.2%), P  = 0.90]. The incidence of postoperative complications was comparable between both groups. Long-term survival was also not different between CCP and BCP (log-rank test: P  = 0.9). Multiple Cox regression analysis demonstrated that mortality was significantly affected by renal function ( P  < 0.001), logistic EuroSCORE ( P  < 0.001), male sex ( P  = 0.005) and diabetes ( P  = 0.037). Patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30% showed improved survival when receiving BCP intraoperatively [odds ratio: 2.28 (1.12-4.63); P  = 0.03].
CONCLUSIONS: CCP and BCP provide equivalent outcome after isolated AVR. However, BCP seems to be beneficial for patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

PMID: 28329384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Cardiac protective effects of remote ischaemic preconditioning in children undergoing tetralogy of fallot repair surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

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Cardiac protective effects of remote ischaemic preconditioning in children undergoing tetralogy of fallot repair surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

Eur Heart J. 2017 Feb 18;:

Authors: Wu Q, Wang T, Chen S, Zhou Q, Li H, Hu N, Feng Y, Dong N, Yao S, Xia Z

Abstract
Aims: Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) by inducing brief ischaemia in distant tissues protects the heart against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in children undergoing open-heart surgery, although its effectiveness in adults with comorbidities is controversial. The effectiveness and mechanism of RIPC with respect to myocardial IRI in children with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF), a severe cyanotic congenital cardiac disease, undergoing open heart surgery are unclear. We hypothesized that RIPC can confer cardioprotection in children undergoing ToF repair surgery.
Methods and results: Overall, 112 ToF children undergoing radical open cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were randomized to either a RIPC group (n = 55) or a control group (n = 57). The RIPC protocol consisted of three cycles of 5-min lower limb occlusion and 5-min reperfusion using a cuff-inflator. Serum inflammatory cytokines and cardiac injury markers were measured before surgery and after CPB. Right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT) tissues were collected during the surgery to assess hypoxia-inducible factor (Hif)-1α and other signalling proteins. Cardiac mitochondrial injury was assessed by electron microscopy. The primary results showed that the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) was longer in the control group than in the RIPC group (52.30 ± 13.43 h vs. 47.55 ± 10.34 h, respectively, P = 0.039). Patients in the control group needed longer post-operative ventilation time compared to the RIPC group (35.02 ± 6.56 h vs. 31.96 ± 6.60 h, respectively, P = 0.016). The levels of post-operative serum troponin-T at 12 and 18 h, CK-MB at 24 h, as well as the serum h-FABP levels at 6 h, after CPB were significantly lower, which was coincident with significantly higher protein expression of cardiac Hif-1α, p-Akt, p-STAT3, p-STAT5, and p-eNOS and less vacuolization of mitochondria in the RIPC group compared to the control group.
Conclusion: In ToF children undergoing open heart surgery, RIPC attenuates myocardial IRI and improves the short-term prognosis.

PMID: 28329231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Myocardial energy metabolism and ultrastructure with polarizing and depolarizing cardioplegia in a porcine model†.

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Myocardial energy metabolism and ultrastructure with polarizing and depolarizing cardioplegia in a porcine model†.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2017 Mar 02;:

Authors: Aass T, Stangeland L, Chambers DJ, Hallström S, Rossmann C, Podesser BK, Urban M, Nesheim K, Haaverstad R, Matre K, Grong K

Abstract
OBJECTIVES : This study investigated whether the novel St. Thomas' Hospital polarizing cardioplegic solution (STH-POL) with esmolol/adenosine/magnesium offers improved myocardial protection by reducing demands for high-energy phosphates during cardiac arrest compared to the depolarizing St. Thomas' Hospital cardioplegic solution No 2 (STH-2).
METHODS: Twenty anaesthetised pigs on tepid cardiopulmonary bypass were randomized to cardiac arrest for 60 min with antegrade freshly mixed, repeated, cold, oxygenated STH-POL or STH-2 blood cardioplegia every 20 min. Haemodynamic variables were continuously recorded. Left ventricular biopsies, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen or fixed in glutaraldehyde, were obtained at Baseline, 58 min after cross-clamp and 20 and 180 min after weaning from bypass. Adenine nucleotides were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography, myocardial ultrastructure with morphometry.
RESULTS: With STH-POL myocardial creatine phosphate was increased compared to STH-2 at 58 min of Cross-clamp [59.9 ± 6.4 (SEM) vs 44.5 ± 7.4 nmol/mg protein; P  <   0.025], and at 20 min after reperfusion (61.0 ± 6.7 vs 49.0 ± 5.5 nmol/mg protein; P  <   0.05), ATP levels were increased at 20 min of reperfusion with STH-POL (35.4 ± 1.1 vs 32.4 ± 1.2 nmol/mg protein; P  <   0.05). Mitochondrial surface-to-volume ratio was decreased with polarizing compared to depolarizing cardioplegia 20 min after reperfusion (6.74 ± 0.14 vs 7.46 ± 0.13 µm 2 /µm 3 ; P  =   0.047). None of these differences were present at 180 min of reperfusion. From 150 min of reperfusion and onwards, cardiac index was increased with STH-POL; 4.8 ± 0.2 compared to 4.0 ± 0.2 l/min/m 2 ( P  =   0.011) for STH-2 at 180 min.
CONCLUSIONS: Polarizing STH-POL cardioplegia improved energy status compared to standard STH-2 depolarizing blood cardioplegia during cardioplegic arrest and early after reperfusion.

PMID: 28329148 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Myocardial protection during minimally invasive cardiac surgery through right mini-thoracotomy.

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Myocardial protection during minimally invasive cardiac surgery through right mini-thoracotomy.

Perfusion. 2017 Apr;32(3):245-252

Authors: De Palo M, Guida P, Mastro F, Nanna D, Quagliara TA, Rociola R, Lionetti G, Paparella D

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Myocardial damage is an independent predictor of adverse outcome following cardiac surgery and myocardial protection is one of the key factors to achieve successful outcomes. Cardioplegia with Custodiol is currently the most used cardioplegia during minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). Different randomized controlled trials compared blood and Custodiol cardioplegia in the context of traditional cardiac surgery. No data are available for MICS.
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of cold blood versus Custodiol cardioplegia during MICS.
METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated 90 patients undergoing MICS through a right mini-thoracotomy in a three-year period. Myocardial protection was performed using cold blood (44 patients, CBC group) or Custodiol (46 patients, Custodiol group) cardioplegia, based on surgeon preference and complexity of surgery.
RESULTS: The primary outcomes were post-operative cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase MB (CKMB) serum release and the incidence of Low Cardiac Output Syndrome (LCOS). Aortic cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times were higher in the Custodiol group. No difference was observed in myocardial injury enzyme release (peak cTnI value was 18±46 ng/ml in CBC and 21±37 ng/ml in Custodiol; p=0.245). No differences were observed for mortality, LCOS, atrial or ventricular arrhythmias onset, transfusions, mechanical ventilation time duration, intensive care unit and total hospital stay.
CONCLUSIONS: Custodiol and cold blood cardioplegic solutions seem to assure similar myocardial protection in patients undergoing cardiac surgery through a right mini-thoracotomy approach.

PMID: 28327076 [PubMed - in process]

PIM1-minicircle as a therapeutic treatment for myocardial infarction.

Protección miocárdica - Hace 13 horas 37 mins
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PIM1-minicircle as a therapeutic treatment for myocardial infarction.

PLoS One. 2017;12(3):e0173963

Authors: Liu N, Wang BJ, Broughton KM, Alvarez R, Siddiqi S, Loaiza R, Nguyen N, Quijada P, Gude N, Sussman MA

Abstract
PIM1, a pro-survival gene encoding a serine/ threonine kinase, influences cell proliferation and survival. Modification of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) or cardiomyocytes with PIM1 using a lentivirus-based delivery method showed long-term improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). However, lentivirus based delivery methods have stringent FDA regulation with respect to clinical trials. To provide an alternative and low risk PIM1 delivery method, this study examined the use of a non-viral modified plasmid-minicircle (MC) as a vehicle to deliver PIM1 into mouse CPCs (mCPCs) in vitro and the myocardium in vivo. MC containing a turbo gfp reporter gene (gfp-MC) was used as a transfection and injection control. PIM1 was subcloned into gfp-MC (PIM1-MC) and then transfected into mCPCs at an efficiency of 29.4±3.7%. PIM1-MC engineered mCPCs (PIM1-mCPCs) exhibit significantly (P<0.05) better survival rate under oxidative treatment. PIM1-mCPCs also exhibit 1.9±0.1 and 2.2±0.2 fold higher cell proliferation at 3 and 5 days post plating, respectively, as compared to gfp-MC transfected mCPCs control. PIM1-MC was injected directly into ten-week old adult FVB female mice hearts in the border zone immediately after MI. Delivery of PIM1 into myocardium was confirmed by GFP+ cardiomyocytes. Mice with PIM1-MC injection showed increased protection compared to gfp-MC injection groups measured by ejection fraction at 3 and 7 days post injury (P = 0.0379 and P = 0.0262 by t-test, respectively). Success of PIM1 delivery and integration into mCPCs in vitro and cardiomyocytes in vivo by MC highlights the possibility of a non-cell based therapeutic approach for treatment of ischemic heart disease and MI.

PMID: 28323876 [PubMed - in process]

The clinical effect of nicorandil on perioperative myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective PCI: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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The clinical effect of nicorandil on perioperative myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective PCI: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Sci Rep. 2017 Mar 21;7:45117

Authors: Ye Z, Su Q, Li L

Abstract
Many scholars have studied the effect of nicorandil on perioperative myocardial protection in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but results are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis. Finally, 16 articles, including 1616 patients, were included into this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis results showed that: (1) Nicorandil can reduce the level of CK-MB after PCI, including at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours. (2) Nicorandil can reduce the level of TnT after PCI, including at 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours and 24 hours. (3) Nicorandil can reduce the incidence of adverse reactions after PCI. (4) Nicorandil cannot reduce the level of MVP after PCI, including at 12 hours and 24 hours. (5) Subgroup analysis showed that nicorandil can reduce CK-MB and TnT level at 24 hours after PCI for Chinese's population (P < 0.05), but can not reduce CK-MB and TnT level at 24 hours after PCI for non Chinese's population (P > 0.05). Our meta-analysis indicate that nicorandil can reduce myocardial injury and reduce the incidence of adverse reaction caused by PCI for Chinese's population, but is not obvious for non Chinese's population. However, this conclusion still needs to be confirmed in the future.

PMID: 28322321 [PubMed - in process]

Examination of the effect of sodium nitrite on gap junction function during ischaemia and reperfusion in anaesthetized dogs.

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Examination of the effect of sodium nitrite on gap junction function during ischaemia and reperfusion in anaesthetized dogs.

Acta Biol Hung. 2017 Mar;68(1):35-49

Authors: Miskolczi G, Gönczi M, Kovács M, Végh Á

Abstract
It has previously been proved that sodium nitrite, infused prior to coronary artery occlusion or before reperfusion, results in marked antiarrhythmic effect in anaesthetized dogs. We have now examined whether this protection involves the modulation of gap junction (GJ) function by nitric oxide (NO), derived from nitrite administration under ischaemic conditions. Two groups of chloralose and urethane anaesthetized dogs, each containing 13 animals, were subjected to a 25 min period occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, followed by reperfusion. One group was infused with sodium nitrite (0.2 μmol/kg/min, i.v.), the other group with saline 10 min prior to reperfusion. The severities of arrhythmias and of ischaemia (epicardial ST-segment, total activation time), parallel with changes in myocardial tissue impedance, a measure of electrical coupling of gap junctions, were assessed during the experiments. Compared to the controls, nitrite infusion administered prior to reperfusion significantly attenuated the severity of ischaemia, the ischaemia-induced impedance changes and, consequently, the severity of arrhythmias, occurring during the 1B phase of the occlusion, and increase survival following reperfusion (0% vs. 85%). It is concluded that the marked antiarrhythmic effect of sodium nitrite is partly due, to the preservation of the electrical coupling of GJs by NO.

PMID: 28322085 [PubMed - in process]

A longer total duration of rapid ventricular pacing does not increase the risk of postprocedural myocardial injury in patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

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A longer total duration of rapid ventricular pacing does not increase the risk of postprocedural myocardial injury in patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Heart Vessels. 2017 Mar 20;:

Authors: Okitsu K, Iritakenishi T, Imada T, Iwasaki M, Shibata SC, Fujino Y

Abstract
Rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) is used during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). RVP disturbs myocardial oxygen balance, and when prolonged, it may cause procedure-related myocardial injury (PMI). This study investigated whether a longer duration of RVP increased the occurrence of PMI or worsened long-term mortality after TAVI. We retrospectively analyzed data from 188 patients who underwent TAVI in our institute from January 2013 to July 2015. Myocardial injury was represented by the peak value of creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) within 72 h after the procedure; an increase greater than 5 times the upper reference limit was regarded as PMI. There was no difference in RVP time (RVPT) between patients with and without PMI (median [range]: 57 [9-189] s vs. 54 [0-159] s, p = 0.9). A higher peak CK-MB was significantly correlated with the apical approach for the procedure (p < 0.001) but not with total RVPT (p = 0.22). A subanalysis of 133 patients whose troponin I was tested within 72 h postprocedurally showed no correlation between the peak value and RVPT (p = 0.40). Shortening RVPT did not result in myocardial protection; thus, RVPT during TAVI should be sufficient to optimize valve placement.

PMID: 28321573 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exosomes and Cardiovascular Protection.

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Exosomes and Cardiovascular Protection.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2017 Feb;31(1):77-86

Authors: Davidson SM, Takov K, Yellon DM

Abstract
Most, if not all, cells of the cardiovascular system secrete small, lipid bilayer vesicles called exosomes. Despite technical challenges in their purification and analysis, exosomes from various sources have been shown to be powerfully cardioprotective. Indeed, it is possible that much of the so-called "paracrine" benefit in cardiovascular function obtained by stem cell therapy can be replicated by the injection of exosomes produced by stem cells. However, exosomes purified from plasma appear to be just as capable of activating cardioprotective pathways. We discuss the potential roles of endogenous exosomes in the cardiovascular system, how this is perturbed in cardiovascular disease, and evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents to protect the heart.

PMID: 27796607 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Deferoxamine-activated hypoxia-inducible factor-1 restores cardioprotective effects of sevoflurane postconditioning in diabetic rats.

Protección miocárdica - Jue, 03/23/2017 - 00:54
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Deferoxamine-activated hypoxia-inducible factor-1 restores cardioprotective effects of sevoflurane postconditioning in diabetic rats.

Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2017 Mar 17;:

Authors: Xie P, Yang L, Talaiti A, Wu J, Yu J, Yu T, Wang H, Huang B, Wu Q, Maimaitili Y, Wang J, Ma H, Yang Y, Zheng H

Abstract
AIM: The cardioprotective effects of sevoflurane postconditioning (SpostC) are eliminated under diabetic conditions, and the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon remains unclear. Many studies have demonstrated that the hypoxia-inducible factor-1(HIF-1) signaling pathway in the myocardium is impaired under diabetic conditions. This study was to investigate whether deferoxamine (DFO)-induced activation of HIF-1 signaling pathway can restore the cardioprotective effects of SpostC in diabetic rats.
METHODS: A model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was induced via ligation of the left anterior descending artery. SpostC was conducted by administering 1.0 MAC sevoflurane. After inducing the I/R injury, the following parameters were measured: myocardial infarct size, cardiac function, myocardial ultrastructure, mitochondrial respiratory function, respiratory chain enzyme activity, rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and protein expression of HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2 and Bax.
RESULTS: After DFO activated HIF-1 in the impaired myocardium of diabetic rats, SpostC significantly upregulated the protein expression of HIF-1α and its downstream mediator VEGF. This improved myocardial mitochondrial respiratory function and respiratory chain enzyme activity and reduced ROS generation as well as the protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax. As a result, myocardial infarct size decreased, and cardiac function and mitochondrial ultrastructure improved.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates for the first time that abolishment of the cardioprotective effects of SpostC in diabetic rats is associated with impairment of the HIF-1 signaling pathway, and that DFO can activate HIF-1 to restore these cardioprotective effects of SpostC in diabetic rats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 28316125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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